Perhaps a few examples will help illustrate the points. Gas laws are mathematical formulas that describe what happens in the natural world. For example, the laws of gases predict with great accuracy that if I double the temperature of a sealed gas (at constant volume), the pressure will double. This relationship is mathematical and tells me what will happen; Therefore, this idea is a law. However, to explain why gases behave this way, we must use molecular kinetic theory. The particles of a gas bounce off each other during elastic collisions (think 3D billiard balls). If we double the temperature, the tiny beads move twice as fast and collide with the container with twice the force. This double force exerted on the container results in double the pressure. What happens if you build a house and then find that there is a room with no doors, no way in or out? Clearly, something is wrong. Are you going to go and do it again? Or see if there is a way to install a door to make the space usable? Or maybe you decide that no space is needed and remove that part of the building. The same goes for scientific theories. Finding a flaw in the theory of gravity probably wouldn`t prompt everyone to build an entirely new theory. Instead, scientists would review the new evidence and see if there is a way to adjust the theory so that the new evidence matches.
This happens quite often. As we learn more and more about the universe, we expand and refine our theories, our explanations of how the universe works. And the theory that explains gravity is general relativity. “Some scientific explanations are so well established that no new evidence could change them. The word cell was first used by Robert Hooke (1635-1703) when he examined cork with a simple microscope and found something that made cork. Today, the term describes a microscopic unit of life that separates itself from its environment by a thin partition, the cell membrane. Which of the following best explains why what we know about cells is called theory rather than law? Cell theory explains cellular behavior where a law would describe it. Why is cell theory considered a scientific theory?A.
This is a well-supported explanation. B. He was over 100 years old. The cell theory states that:all living things are made up of cells and all cells come from other cellsall living things are made up of . In this hypothetical scenario (Fig. 2.3), an environmental stimulus recognized by the dendrite of a sensory neuron is transmitted from its axon to the dendrites of a population of motor neurons. Then, the axon of each motor neuron innervates a population of effector cells. This is the functional polarity rule applied to a simple two-layer sensorimotor network that intervenes in reflex behavior. A theory does not become a law.
When scientists examine the hypothesis, they follow a line of reasoning and ultimately formulate a theory. Once a theory has been thoroughly tested and accepted, it becomes a scientific law. While Todd and Bowman describe the cytoarchitecture of the nerve vesicle, they do not accurately describe its connections. Instead of suggesting that the axis cylinder is adjacent to the cell body, Todd and Bowman dissect between the myelin sheath and neuritic processes, calling the two components “fibrous nerve matter.” They note that “nerve vesicles are not in direct contact with each other” . Laws of biology. Guess, but since chemical changes in photosynthesis are a constant chemical change in water, from CO2 to sugar and O2, is this such a law? Two sex cells with 23 chromosomes become a person with 46 chromosomes? How does a law differ from a theory? A law is a theory that has proven to be true and universal. A theory is a group of assumptions that prove that a law is true. A law is a statement of fact, but a theory is an explanation. The problems with defining “protoplasm” became more acute as more intracellular inclusions became apparent. Kollicker described granules in muscles (sarcosomes) in the mid-nineteenth century; Components of the mitotic apparatus were seen as well as fat droplets, starch granules and pigmented bodies. The Golgi apparatus was described in 1898 and mitochondria in 1903 (Benda). Many of these bodies multiplied and divided, apparently synchronously with the division of the cell.
Pfluger thought of protoplasm as a giant molecule whose side chains were involved in assimilation and oxidation. Fermentation was a function of protoplasm as a whole. In 1875, he defined life as “intracellular heat” generated by the oxidative destruction of “giant protein molecules” that could multiply by polymerization. Ideas about protein structure were still limited by colloidal theory (Chapter 10). Todd was aware of Schwann`s cell theory; However, he was not sure about the link between “nerve vesicles” (cell bodies) and “nerve tubes”: the cell theory is not a cell theory for at least 2 reasons. The three parts of cell theory are: (1) All living things are made up of cells, (2) cells are the smallest units (or most basic building blocks) of life, and (3) All cells originate from pre-existing cells through the process of cell division. The first reason cell theory is a theory is that viruses are a big exception. Viruses are not made up of cells, they have no metabolism and the activity of an organism depends on chemical reactions, but some scientists still consider them alive, which goes against what the cell theory says. Theories cannot become laws because each serves a different purpose. Let me explain (and yes, it`s a simplified explanation).
Theories are a set of ideas that help explain how or why natural phenomena occur. Laws are usually mathematical relationships that describe what is happening. It is a law because it describes force, but does not attempt to explain how force works. A theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon. Einstein`s theory of general relativity explains how gravity works by describing gravity as the effect of the curvature of four-dimensional spacetime. Neither of these ideas (gas law or kinetic molecular theory) is more accepted than the other. They are both useful for understanding matter. The theory is not under the law. In many ways, theory is more useful than law because it tells us why something happens, not just why it happens.
The English scientist Robert Hooke published Micrographia in 1665. He illustrates the smallest complete parts of an organism, which he calls cells. Darwin provided a mechanism, a “how” for evolution. Darwin`s theory of natural selection is not a theory because it does not have enough evidence, it is a theory because it explains how species evolve. Evolution by natural selection is therefore not “just a theory,” but the most empirical and scientifically accepted way to explain the evolution of species. A scientific theory is a solid explanation of an aspect of the natural world, based on a set of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed by observation and experimentation. Such factual theories are not “assumptions,” but reliable accounts of the real world. The theory of biological evolution is more than just a “theory.” This is as factual an explanation of the universe as the atomic theory of matter (which says that everything is made of atoms) or the germline theory of disease (which states that many diseases are caused by germs). Our understanding of gravity is still a work in progress.